Linus Pauling Protocol

imgs1Linus Pauling, Ph.D. (1901-1994) was one of the most brilliant scientific minds of the 20th century. He was one of the first scientists to work in the fields of molecular biology, quantum chemistry, and orthomolecular medicine. Pauling was one of only four individuals ever to win two Nobel Prizes. He was also the only person ever to win a Nobel in two unrelated fields, and the only person ever to win each prize without sharing the award with another recipient. Pauling’s doctorate was in the fields of physical chemistry and mathematical physics and, as such, his work focused on the nature of chemical bonds and the structure of molecules. Later in life, he turned his attention and vast base of knowledge toward the fields of health and medicine.

Pauling believed that cardiovascular diseasehas at its root a form of chronic pre-scurvy, caused by a long-term deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). This deficiency weakens blood vessels, making them susceptible to the formation of millions of tiny lesions/tears/stress fractures. The coronary arteries are particularly susceptible, as these vessels undergo the highest mechanical stresses as they open and are squeezed flat more than 100,000 times daily by the pumping action of the heart. After the damaged areas form, they begin to be coated by fatty deposits in an attempt to repair the weakened vessels. Over many years the repair process overcompensates and plaque deposits develop. 

Several species including humans, other primates, the guinea pig, and the Indian fruit-eating bat don’t endogenously manufacture vitamin C. Humans are one of only several animals that develops atherosclerotic plaque and has heart attacks. Sometime in the evolutionary past humans lost the ability to produce the vitamin. Until very recent historical times—about 100 years ago—this was of no consequence as man consumed a nutrient-rich, plant-based diet containing sufficient amounts of vitamin C not only to prevent outright scurvy but to stave off the deterioration of the arteries and the consequent formation of atherosclerotic plaque caused by the chronic presence of the disease.

The advent of the industrial and chemical farming revolutions, the development of modern farming methods, and the ascent of the fast food Western nations all have contributed to a food supply which is nutrient deficient in comparison to that of our ancestors. Thus, our current Western diet is sorely lacking in many nutrients including vitamin C. Seagoing wayfarers developed scurvy due to their inability to store a sufficient supply of vitamin C-containing foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables. In 1753 James Lind, a Scottish surgeon in the British Royal Navy, proved scurvy could be treated with vitamin C-containing citrus fruit. Although this has been known for over 250 years, the understanding has never been applied to modern medicine’s treatment of heart disease. 

imgs2While plaque consists of a variety of substances—fibrinogen/fibrin; lipoproteins; cholesterol and other fatty particles, as mentioned—it is now known that the principal glue-like substance that initially binds to the arterial walls is lipoprotein (a), abbreviated Lp(a)—a specific sub-type of lipoprotein. Lp(a) particles are particularly sticky due to lysine and proline binding site receptors on their surfaces.  As the chronic state of scurvy progresses, continued deposition of fatty particles and liproproteins worsen the deteriorating atherosclerotic condition.

Dr. Pauling’s simple but brilliant cure for heart disease is to supplement with high doses of Lp(a) binding inhibitors—the amino acids lysine and proline—and also vitamin C. These substances, when taken together, produce collagen, elastin, and other reinforcement molecules, thus strengthening and stabilizing the arterial walls. Further, lysine and proline fill the lysine and proline binding site receptors on the surfaces of Lp(a) molecules, neutralize their stickiness, and prevent them from contributing to further plaque buildup. They also release Lp(a) molecules from their anchor sites within the plaque, causing them to dissolve over time.

Even end-stage cardiovascular disease patients have reported results including cessation of angina pain, reduced blood pressure, and lipid normalization. Pauling found the effects of this therapy were so pronounced he doubted clinical studies would even be necessary.

Autopsies of soldiers from the Korean and Vietnam wars revealed that up to 75% of soldiers in their early 20s had already developed some form of atherosclerotic deposits. Therefore, we know that atherosclerosis isn’t a disease affecting only those of advanced age. Further, Dr. Matthias Rath, a renowned German cardiologist and colleague of Dr. Pauling, discovered that—depending on lifestyle—atherosclerotic plaque formation can increase at an average rate of almost 50% each year. Because it’s an aggressive disease which afflicts such a high percentage of Westerners, it would be prudent for most everyone to consider supplementing with the group of plaque-reversing nutrients discovered by Drs. Pauling and Rath.

imgs3Because atherosclerotic deposits form over the span of many years, it takes time for the vitamin C, lysine, and proline combination to halt and begin to reverse the disease. As reported in 1996 in the Journal of Applied Nutrition (2), Dr. Rath and his colleagues discovered that in people with early stages of coronary artery disease, during the initial six month period the growth rate slowed, and essentially stopped during the second six months, as measured by EBCT scans. Thereafter, the deposits began to dissolve. More advanced atherosclerosis may take longer before the benefits are measurable. Despite these findings, Pauling noted that amazing symptom reversals in as little as 10-14 days are ordinary occurrences.

Dr. Pauling’s dosage recommendations are:

  1. Vitamin C as ascorbic acid—not other forms such as buffered vitamin C or Ester C®: 3-10 grams (gm; 3,000-10,000 mg) daily in divided doses for prevention; 10-18 gm daily for therapeutic treatment, to bowel tolerance. If diarrhea occurs, decrease the dosage slightly
  2. Lysine: 2-3 gm daily for prevention; 5-6 gm for therapeutic treatment, and
  3. Proline: 250-500 mg daily for prevention; 2 gm daily for therapeutic treatment. The protocol is faster-acting when sugar (sucrose, fructose, etc.) is eliminated from the diet and omega-3 fatty acids are included.